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BBC: 为什么看到别人打哈欠自己也会打哈欠?

kira86 于2020-09-23发布
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打哈欠是我们疲累的标志?那为什么看别人打哈欠,自己也想打呢?打哈欠居然也会传染?
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Why does seeing someone yawn make you yawn?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版为什么看到别人打哈欠自己也会打哈欠?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Hello. This is 6 Minute English, I'm Georgina.

哈喽,这里是6分钟英语,我是乔治娜。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: And I'm Rob.

我是罗布。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: What do you do when you're tired, Rob?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版罗布,你累了会做什么?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Mm, I go to bed.

嗯,我会上床睡觉。

Georgina: Before that?

在那之前呢?

Rob: Erm, I clean my teeth?

额,刷牙?

Georgina: But what does your body do to tell you you're tired?

但你的身体会有哪些信号告诉你累了呢?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Right, well these days I just kind of fall asleep in front of the TV.

对了,这些天我看着电视就睡着了。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Yes, but, OK - what am I doing now?

好的,但是,好吧——我现在在干嘛?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Oh yes, hang on - yes, you've set me off - yawning, yes yawning is a sign that we are tired! Or bored!

噢,对了,等等——我也像你一样——打哈欠,对了,打哈欠就是我们疲累的标志!或者困倦的标志!

Georgina: Are you tired or bored now?

你现在困倦吗?

Rob: No, not particularly.

不,不是特别累。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: So, why did you just yawn?

那你刚才为什么打哈欠?

Rob: Well, because you did! That's the thing about yawns. They are contagious - they can spread from one person to another.

嗯,因为你打哈欠了!这就是打哈欠的原因。它们具有传染性——它们可以从一个人传给另一个人。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: And that's what we're looking at in this programme. But first, today's question. What biological function does yawning have? Essentially, why do we yawn? Is it: A: To take in more oxygen B: To get rid of carbon dioxide from our body C: No one really knows. What do you think, Rob?

这就是我们这期节目要关注的。但首先是今天的问题。打哈欠有什么生物学功能?本质上,我们为什么打哈欠?是:A:吸入更多的氧气B:排出体内的二氧化碳C:没有人确切知道。你觉得呢,罗布?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Ah - I know this. We yawn to take in more oxygen. I'm pretty sure that's it.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版啊——我知道。我们打哈欠是为了吸入更多氧气。我肯定就是这个答案。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: OK. We'll see if you're correct at the end of the programme. John Drury is a researcher from Sussex University. On the BBC Radio 4 series All in The Mind he spoke about yawning and why it is contagious. Which animal does he mention will also catch a yawn from its owner?

好的。在节目的最后我们再看你的回答是否正确。约翰·德鲁里是苏塞克斯大学的一名研究人员。在BBC广播4台的《头脑中的一切》系列节目中,他谈到了打哈欠以及打哈欠会传染的原因。他提到哪一种动物也会跟着主人打呵欠?

John Drury: Yawning is actually a difficult case when it comes to these contagious behaviours. It is the most contagious behaviour - it's meant to be automatic, it's something that you can't stop. Dogs yawn when their owners yawn, animals yawn to each other. It happens whether you want to or not. These kind of effects have been found for other kinds of behaviour, so really, we were trying to push it as far as we could and see if there is a cognitive element to this influence behaviour.

当涉及到这些传染性行为时,打哈欠实际上是一个难题。它是最具传染性的行为——它注定是无意识的,是你无法阻止的。狗也会因为主人打哈欠而打哈欠,动物也会互相打哈欠。不管你愿意与否,它都会发生。这种影响在其他类型的行为中也有发现,所以我们真的在努力把它推进到我们能做的最远的地方,看看这种影响行为是否有认知因素。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Which animal might yawn when its owner does?

哪一种动物会在主人打哈欠时打哈欠?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Dogs! Dogs can catch a yawn from their owners.

狗!狗会被主人打呵欠传染。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Yes, yawning is a very contagious behaviour. The use of the word behaviour here is interesting. Normally it is an uncountable noun to describe the way we act - either in a good or a bad way. We talk about, for example, dogs' or children's behaviour being good or bad.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版是的,打哈欠是一种非常具有传染性的行为。行为这个词在这里的使用很有趣。通常它是一个不可数名词,用来描述我们的行为方式——好的或坏的方式。例如,我们谈论狗或孩子的行为是好是坏。

Rob: But it's also used as an uncountable noun when we are talking about a particular action that, for example, an animal makes in particular situations. These behaviours are often not conscious, but are an automatic response to a situation.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版但是当我们谈论一个特定的动作时,它也可以用作不可数名词,例如,动物在特定的情况下做出的动作。这些行为通常不是有意识的,而是对情况的自动反应。

Georgina: And the researchers were looking to see if there was a cognitive side to the behaviour. Which means they are looking at the mental process - what is happening in the mind to make us yawn, particularly when someone else yawns. Let's listen again

研究人员想知道这种行为是否有认知的一面。这意味着他们在观察心理过程——大脑中发生了什么让我们打哈欠,特别是当别人打哈欠的时候。我们再听一遍

John Drury: Yawning is actually a difficult case when it comes to these contagious behaviours. It is the most contagious behaviour - it's meant to be auto matic, it's something that you can't stop. Dogs yawn when their owners yawn, animals yawn to each other. It happens whether you want to or not. These kinds of effects have been found for other kinds of behaviour, so really, we were trying to push it as far as we could and see if there is a cognitive element to this influence behaviour.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版当涉及到这些传染性行为时,打哈欠实际上是一个难题。它是最具传染性的行为——它注定是无意识的,是你无法阻止的。狗也会因为主人打哈欠而打哈欠,动物也会互相打哈欠。不管你愿意与否,它都会发生。这种影响在其他类型的行为中也有发现,所以我们真的在努力把它推进到我们能做的最远的地方,看看这种影响行为是否有认知因素。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: The research discovered that contagious yawning is connected with our social group and how close we feel to the people in it. Here's John Drury again.

研究发现,传染性哈欠与我们的社会群体以及我们与社会群体的亲密程度有关。下面还是约翰·德鲁里的谈话。

John Drury: So, the more that you identify with the in-group target, the more likely you are to copy their behaviour. What we do when we see a behaviour is that at some level, we are making a judgement about whether the person exhibiting that behaviour, whether it's an emotion, or a scratching behaviour, or anything, is relevant. Does their behaviour indicate to us how we should behave?

所以,你越认同内群体目标,你就越有可能模仿他们的行为。当我们看到一个行为时,在某种程度上,我们是在判断这个人是否表现出了这种行为,无论是情绪,还是抓挠行为,或者其他什么,这些都是相关的。他们的行为是否向我们表明了我们应该如何行为?

Georgina: So, essentially, yawning is more contagious if we identify with the person who yawns first. If we feel close to, and belong in, the same group as the person who exhibits the behaviour - the person who does the yawning - we are likely to yawn too.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版所以,从本质上说,如果我们认同先打哈欠的人,打哈欠的传染性更强。如果我们觉得自己与表现出这种行为的人——打哈欠的人——接近并属于同一个群体,我们也可能会打哈欠。

Rob: So, you are less likely to yawn if a stranger yawns than if someone in your close family or circle of friends yawns.

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版所以,当一个陌生人打哈欠时,你打哈欠的可能性比你的近亲或朋友打哈欠时要小。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Let's listen again.

我们再听一遍。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版John Drury: So, the more that you identify with the in-group target, the more likely you are to copy their behaviour. What we do when we see a behaviour is that at some level, we are making a judgement about whether the person exhibiting that behaviour, whether it's an emotion, or a scratching behaviour, or anything, is relevant. Does their behaviour indicate to us how we should behave?

所以,你越认同内群体目标,你就越有可能模仿他们的行为。当我们看到一个行为时,在某种程度上,我们是在判断这个人是否表现出了这种行为,无论是情绪,还是抓挠行为,或者其他什么,这些都是相关的。他们的行为是否向我们表明了我们应该如何行为?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Right, before we review the vocabulary, let's have the answer to our quiz. Why do we yawn? Is it: A: To take in more oxygen B: To get rid of carbon dioxide from our body C: No one really knows. Rob, what did you say?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版好的。在复习词汇之前,我们先来看看小测验的答案。我们为什么打哈欠?是:A:吸入更多的氧气B:排出体内的二氧化碳C:没有人确切知道。罗布,你刚选了哪个?

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: Well, I was pretty sure it's A - to take in more oxygen.

好吧,我很确定选A-吸入更多的氧气。

Georgina: There is, in fact, no clear biological reason for yawning that is agreed upon. So no one really knows.

事实上,人们对打哈欠的生物学原因没有明确地达成一致。所以没有人真正知道。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: We've been talking about yawning. The action of opening our mouths wide open and stretching our eardrums when tired or bored.

我们一直在谈论打哈欠。当我们疲惫或无聊的时候,就会张大嘴巴和鼓膜。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Georgina: Yawning can also be contagious. This means it can pass from one person to another.

打哈欠也会传染。这意味着它可以从一个人传给另一个人。

京葡国际澳门在线,捕鱼游戏下载手机版Rob: And a yawn can be described as a behaviour - a particular kind of automatic action in response to a particular situation.

打哈欠可以被描述为一种行为——一种对特定情况作出反应的特殊的自动行为。

Georgina: The word cognitive is related to our mental processes - the way our minds work.

“认知”这个词与我们的心理过程有关,也就是我们思维运作的方式。

Rob: If you identify with a particular group - you feel close to that group and feel that you belong in that group.

如果你认同一个特定的群体——你会觉得和这个群体很亲近,觉得自己属于这个群体。

Georgina: And finally, to exhibit a behaviour is to actually do that particular behaviour. And before we all start yawning, it's time for us to go. Do join us again soon and you can always find us online, on social media and on the BBC Learning English app. Bye for now.

最后,to exhibit a behaviour指的是真的做出那个特定的行为。在我们开始打哈欠之前,节目该结束了。欢迎再次加入我们,你可以通过网络、社交媒体和BBC英语学习应用找到我们。再见。

Rob: Bye!

再见!

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